Backward Induction - A blog by Oliver Stollmann

Functional Purity (the dangers of non-referentially transparent functions)

People have asked me what is so attractive about a purely functional language like Haskell. Well I thought that instead of tyring to convince people with words I would simply give an example.

Note: Now it is clear that even Haskell must deal with impure code if it wants to have any effect on the world (print something to your terminal, talk to a server or read a file), but Haskell programs tend to keep impure functions to a minimum, by lifting pure code into the IO monad at the edges of the program.

Here is a very simple piece of C code that shows the dangers of impure code:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

struct person{
    char *name;
    int age;
int get_age(struct person *p) {
    /* danger */
    p->name = "Nicholas";
    return p->age;
int main() {
    struct person *oliver; 
    oliver = malloc(sizeof(struct person));
    oliver->name = "Oliver";
    oliver->age  = 23;
    // What is the value of oliver->name now?
    // You cannot guarantee it!
    return 0;

So what's the problem? The type of the get_age function is that it takes a pointer to a struct person and returns an int. Given the name of the function and it's type you would assume that it act like a simple getter for the age attribute of the struct. Yet there is NO GUARANTEE of this! Because of an error on my part the get_age function changes the person's name. If I didn't know this as a user of this function I may very well produce buggy code. Contrast this to the following haskell code:

data Person = Person { _name :: String
                       _age  :: Int }

getAge :: Person -> Int
getAge = _age

The getAge function's type signature is getAge :: Person -> Int which means that it takes a Person and returns an Int. Because of Haskell's incredibly strict type system I CAN GUARANTEE that it will not change the person's name by mistake (or on purpose). Haskell's purity guarantees that a function that is not in the IO Monad will be referentially transparent.

Note: This article is not entirely correct. I am making some terrible simplifications here. Firstly one can for example argue that even actions in the IO monad are pure. Secondly there are ways of overcoming Haskell's type restrictions, namely unsafePerformIO. Nonetheless this frame of mind, when it comes to pure vs. inpure code suits most situations (my opinion).